About Iraq

Geography, climate, and demography


Iraq is located in the Middle East region of southwest Asia, bordering Iran, Turkey, Syria, Jordan, Saudi Arabia and Kuwait. In the plateaus and relatively flat areas, agriculture is rainfed and crops such as wheat, barley and sesame are grown. Palm trees are also abundantly planted and cultivated around rivers and streams. In the southern parts of Mesopotamia, the presence of reservoirs and permanent wells has caused the growth of dense reeds.

The climate of Iraq (except for the northern part) is mostly desert with cold and sometimes cold winters and hot and dry summers. In summer, the temperature in most parts of the country reaches 40 degrees Celsius and in some areas even 48 degrees.

Iraq is a member of The Arab League, a union of Arab-speaking Asian and African countries that have 22 members until 2021. Iraq is a vast country with diverse regions, languages and dialects. Arabic, Kurdish, Turkmen and Syriac languages are spoken in this country, but according to the Iraqi constitution, Kurdish and Arabic are recognized as the main and official languages in Iraq.

The total population of Iraq is 42.246 million is predicted to increase by 2.16%. There is a notable ethnic diversity in Iraq. Most Iraqis are Arabs, who make up approximately 75 to 80 percent of the population followed by Kurds (12% to 18%). Kurds live mostly in the northeastern regions of the Sulaymaniyah, Erbil, and Dohuk provinces. Also, Turkmens make up from 5% to 7% of Iraq’s population.

History and Government

Iraq has a long and rich civilization and culture. The Sumerians, Akkadians and Assyrians founded the first ancient civilizations in Iraq several thousand years BC. In pre-Islamic times, present-day Iraq was part of Iran. After Islam, Iraq became the center of the long-term rule of the Abbasid caliphate. From the middle of the tenth century to the end of the thirteenth century AH, Iraq was under the rule of the Ottoman Empire. Iraq seceded from the Ottomans in 1298 (1919) and came under British rule, gaining independence in 1911.

The structure of the Iraqi government consists of a legislature that elects the executive and the judiciary. The government is federally administered and the Kurdistan Region is recognized as an autonomous region.

History and Government