Iraq has a long and rich civilization and culture. The Sumerians, Akkadians and Assyrians founded the first ancient civilizations in Iraq several thousand years BC. In pre-Islamic times, present-day Iraq was part of Iran. After Islam, Iraq became the center of the long-term rule of the Abbasid caliphate. From the middle of the tenth century to the end of the thirteenth century AH, Iraq was under the rule of the Ottoman Empire. Iraq seceded from the Ottomans in 1298 (1919) and came under British rule, gaining independence in 1911.
The structure of the Iraqi government consists of a legislature that elects the executive and the judiciary. The government is federally administered and the Kurdistan Region is recognized as an autonomous region.